By resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers inthe Semipalatinsk region in 1947 was created the polygon, where the period of 1949-1989 were tested nuclear weapons.
As a result of these tests, the settlements adjacent to the area of the polygon, for many years have been affected by radioactive contamination. To control the radiation-hygienic situation and to estimate the health of the population, in March 1957 in Semipalatinsk was opened specialized confidential medical institution - Dispensary №4 of MoH of the USSR. In 1967 it was renamed in “Antibrucellar Dispensary” № 4 of MoH of the USSR. In 1989 was renamed in Radiological clinic of MoH of the USSR.
After the disintegration of the USSR, by the Decree of President N.A. Nazarbayev № 409 in 29.08.1991 was closed the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.
In August 1991, on the basis of the clinic, there was created the Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology of the MoH of the Kazakh SSR.
On the basis of the Resolution of the Government of the RK № 1335 of 25.12.1998 Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology MoH of the RK was reorganized into the RSBSE “Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology”.
From 1957 to 1960 Clinic № 4 of MoH of the USSR headed by Katkova A.N. Under her supervision, was set up mobile group of radiation and hygienic department, whose task was to select environmental objects and local foods for the subsequent evaluation of their nuclear fission products content.
From 1960 to 1962 chief medical officer of Clinic № 4 becomes Smirnov A.A. Under his supervision, there was created a medical department. Department staff carried out medical examinations of the population of different regions adjacent to the polygon.
Makerova S.I. Gusev B.I. From 1962 to 1975 - chief medical officer of antibrucellar clinic № 4 was Makerova S.I. During this period, divisions were significantly enlarged and included radiation-hygienic department, clinical department, administrative and economic department.
From 1976 to 1997 at first Clinic and then the Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology was headed by MD Gusev B.I. Under his supervision, there were developed the main documents containing data on numeric and age-sex structure of the groups of radiation risk and effective equivalent doses. These data allowed to prepare the project of the Law “On social protection of citizens suffered from the tests at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site”, adopted by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on 18th December 1992, № 1787-XII.
Since 2001 – till now the director of RSBSE “Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology” is Apsalikov K.N. doctor of medical sciences, professor. Under his leadership the Institute became the lead organization of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan on issues of Radiation Medicine in Kazakhstan. The programmes on rehabilitation of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan suffered from the nuclear weapons tests are created and developed.